Cilj ovog rada bio je provjeriti teorijske postavke o povezanosti radnih orijentacija (posao kao izvor prihoda, posao kao karijera i posao kao životni poziv) s dobrobiti i zadovoljstvom poslom učitelja glazbe i učitelja predmetne nastave. Naglasak je bio na ispitivanju uloge zanesenosti kao moguće posredujuće varijable u ovom odnosu i to posebno za predmetne učitelje i posebno za učitelje u glazbenim osnovnim školama. Očekivalo se da će učitelji glazbe imati više rezultate na radnoj orijentaciji na životni poziv, zanesenosti, životnom zadovoljstvu, psihološkom procvatu i zadovoljstvu poslom.
U istraživanju je sudjelovalo 209 predmetnih učitelja (različitih predmeta) u osnovnoj školi i 173 učitelja iz osnovnih glazbenih škola. Korišteni su sljedeći instrumenti: upitnik radnih orijentacija, upitnik zanesenosti u poučavanju, skala životnog zadovoljstva, skala psihološkog procvata i jedna čestica za mjerenje zadovoljstva poslom.
Rezultati su pokazali da se dvije grupe učitelja međusobno statistički značajno ne razlikuju ni u jednoj ispitivanoj varijabli osim u zanesenosti. Međutim, suprotno očekivanjima veću zanesenost u poslu imali su predmetni učitelji. Orijentacija na životni poziv bila je pozitivni prediktor zanesenosti, zadovoljstva životom, psihološkog procvata i zadovoljstva poslom kod predmetnih učitelja, ali samo zanesenosti i zadovoljstva poslom učitelja glazbe. U obje skupine učitelja orijentacija na posao kao izvor prihoda bila je negativno povezana sa svim navedenim varijablama. Orijentacija na karijeru nije bila značajno povezana ni s jednom varijablom. Očekivano, zanesenost je bila posredujuća varijabla u negativnom odnosu između radne orijentacije na posao kao izvor prihoda i zavisnih varijabli i u pozitivnom odnosu između radne orijentacije na životni poziv i zavisnih varijabli.
Teorijski doprinos ovog rada je u objašnjenju veze između radnih orijentacija i dobrobiti i zadovoljstva poslom u dva različita konteksta: kod predmetnih učitelja i učitelja u glazbenim školama.
|Sažetak (engleski)|| |
Teachers' well-being has a significant positive impact upon teachers' motivation (Moe, 2016). If teachers' well-being plays such an important role in students' success as well as in other educating outcomes, it is essential to determine factors which contribute to their well-being. Among various factors attitudes take an outstanding place that teachers have about their job and are also called work orientations.
Researches have shown that employees who experience their job as a life calling , generally have greater job and life satisfaction in relation to those who look upon their job only as a source of income or career which was also confirmed in elementary school teachers (Jurčec and Rijavec, 2015). Since there is a proven correlation betweeen work orientations and life-satisfaction, certain researches tried to discover possible mediators in this correlation and it was found out that teachers who experience their job as a life calling, have a greater well-being as their fundamental psychological needs are better satisfied and they also have a greater sense of job meaningfulness and sense of life (Jurčec, 2014; Miljković et al, 2016). In this paper it is assumed that a mediator between work orientations and well-being could be also feeling of the flow at work; whereby theory of work orientations and theory of the flow as theoretical frame of the research of predictors of teachers' well-being are integrated. One of the reasons of correlation of work orientation upon a life calling and life and job satisfaction may lie in that teachers who experience their job as a life calling, experience the state of flow at work more frequently. Flow is emphatically pleasant psychogical state that people experience when they are in such an extent oriented upon activity that they are momentarily dealing with that they are completely absorbed with it (Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). This paper assumes that attitude towards job as a life calling encourages teachers to improve themselves, increase their competences and thus increase probability to experience the state of flow that contributes to well-being. It would be significant to examine work orientations of teachers in music schools as it is possible that they will experience their job as a life calling more frequently since Csikszentmihalyi (1990) discovered that artists and sportsmen are especially prone to feel the flow. As it was shown that well-being is correlated with the flow (Asakawa, 2010; Bryce and Haworth 2002) ,it would be significant to check whether the flow is more expressed in teachers in music schools and whether it has a mediating role in relation to work orientations and well-being.
Aim and problems of the research
The aim of this paper is to check theoretical precepts of correlation of work orientations (job as a source of income, job as a career and job as a life calling) and well-being and life satisfaction of music teachers and elementary school teachers. The main goal of the paper is to examine the role of flow as a possible mediating variable in this correlation and it applies especially to elementary school teachers and teachers in elementary music schools.
The sample encompassed two groups of examinees. The first group was comprised of 209 elementary school teachers of different subjects and the second group consisted of 173 teachers in elementary music schools. In the paper the following questionnaires were used: Questionnaire of work orientations (eng. Modified University of Pennsylvania Work-Life Questionnaire, Wrzesniewski et al., 1997), Questionnaire of the flow in teaching, which is modified by means of Scale for measurement of work flow (eng.Work Related Flow Inventory WOLF, Bakker, 2008), Scale of psychological flourishing (eng. Flourishing Scale, Diener et al, 2010), Measurement of job satisfaction (eng. Job Satisfaction-JS-Single Item Scale, Scarpello and Campbell, 1983).
Results and discussion
The obtained results did not confirm hypothesis according to which teachers in music schools experience their job as a life calling more often and more rarely as a career or source of income. Generally it can be concluded that between the group of teachers in music schools and elementary school teachers there is no significant statistical difference in work orientations, that is the way, how they experience their job, that may be interpreted by means of comprehension of identity of music teachers as musicians or music pedagogue, (Ballantye and Grootenboer, 2012; Ballantye and Zhukov, 2017; Pellegrino, 2009).
It was also shown that between the group of teachers in music schools and elementary school teachers there is no significant statistical difference either in well-being or in job satisfaction, except for the fact that a difference was found in the flow of teaching, but contrary to the hypothesis the results show that elementary school teachers experience the flow in teaching more frequently than teachers in music schools. Results connected with the flow in
teaching are not in accordance with assumed hypotheses that were based on the past researches in which it was confirmed that artists and musicians experience the state of flow more frequently (Csikszentmihayli, 1990: Delgado, 2017) and it seems that music teaching on the level of elemenatry school does not differ from teaching of other subjects when in question are conditions that lead to the flow, that is, it is possible that challenges and skills that are required for phenomenon of the state of flow are greater in elementary school teachers.
Regression analysis on the sample of elementary school teachers and teachers in music schools with the flow in teaching and job satisfaction as a criterion variable showed that essential predictors are job as a source of income and job as a life calling, whereas orientation on job as a career contrary to the presumption did not prove connected either with the flow in teaching or in job satisfaction. Such results are in accordance with past researches that proved positive correlation of work orientation on life calling with flow at work (Tavčar and Arzenšek, 2019) and negative connection between orientation on job as a source of income and flow at work (Jurčec, 2019). In conformity with past researches results are connected with positive correlation of orientation on job as a life calling and positive results at work with job satisfaction (Lobene and Meade, 2013; Wrzesniewski et al., 1997) and negative connection of orientation on job as a source of income and job satisfaction (Gradišek et al., 2020; Jurčec and Rijavec, 2015). Regression analysis on the sample of elementary school teachers with well-being (psychological flourishing and life satisfaction) as a criterion variable showed that significant predictors proved to be job as a source of income that is negatively correlated with well-being and job as a life calling that is positively connected with psychological flourishing, whereas orientation on work as a career contrary to the presumption did not prove connected with psychological flourishing. On the sample of teachers in music schools as a significant predictor proved to be only job as a source of income that is negatively correlated with life satisfaction and psychological flourishing, whereas orientation on work as a life calling was not a significant predictor of well-being in any dimension as well as it was with orientation on work as a career. In accordance with past researches it was confirmed that orientation on a life calling proved to be positively and orientation on work as a source of income negatively correlated with well-being (Peterson et al., 2009; Wrzesniewski et al. 1997).
In the paper was shown a mediating role of the flow at work in relation between work orientations on a life calling and source of income, well-being and job satisfaction, whereas mediating role in work orientation on a career did not prove to be significant. It was also
confirmed that mediating role of the flow between elementary school teachers and teachers in music schools is not significant.
In theoretical sense the greatest contribution of this research is the mediating role of flow between work orientation on a life calling and well-being in elementary school teachers and teachers in elementary music schools.